This part is devoted to a frequently asked question regarding electrostatic interactions, which are the main ones in our research.
Solvation (from lat. Solvo "dissolve") - electrostatic interaction between particles (ions, molecules) of a dissolved substance and a solvent. Solvation in aqueous solutions is called hydration. The molecular aggregates formed as a result of solvation are called solvates (in the case of water, hydrates)
Van der Waals forces (Van der Waals forces) are the forces of intermolecular (and interatomic) interaction with an energy of 10–20 kJ / mol. This term originally denoted all such forces, in modern science it is usually applied to the forces arising from the polarization of molecules and the formation of dipoles.
Classification of van der Waals forces:
The van der Waals interaction consists of three types of weak electromagnetic interactions:
Orientation forces, dipole-dipole attraction. It is carried out between molecules that are permanent dipoles. An example is HCl in liquid and solid state. The energy of this interaction is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the dipoles.
Dispersive attraction (London forces, dispersion forces). They are due to the interaction between the instantaneous and the induced dipole. The energy of this interaction is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between the dipoles.
Induction attraction (polarization attraction). Interaction between permanent dipole and induced (induced). The energy of this interaction is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between the dipoles.
The dipole moment is an important molecular constant that characterizes the electrical symmetry of a molecule. Knowledge of the magnitude of the dipole moment is necessary for studying the nature of chemical bonds, assessing the strength of donor-acceptor and intermolecular bonds, for quantum-chemical calculations.
Electric dipole moment is a vector physical quantity that characterizes, along with the total charge (and rarely used higher multipole moments), the electrical properties of a system of charged particles (charge distribution) in the sense of the field they create and the action of external fields on it. After the total charge and the position of the system as a whole (its radius vector), the main characteristic of the configuration of the charges of the system when observing it was published
Dispersion forces (dispersive attraction, London forces, London dispersion forces, LDF) are the forces of electrostatic attraction of instantaneous and induced (induced) dipoles of electrically neutral atoms or molecules.
A hydrogen bond is a form of association between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom H, covalently bonded to another electronegative atom. N, O, or F can act as electronegative atoms. Hydrogen bonds can be intermolecular or intramolecular
Donor-acceptor interaction - charge transfer between donor and acceptor molecules without the formation of a chemical bond between them (exchange mechanism); or the transfer of a lone electron pair from a donor to an acceptor, leading to the formation of a bond (donor-acceptor mechanism).